Sunday, 31 March 2013

Easter Greetings 2013

Copyright Julie Vaux 2013

Available on a variety of items and gifts along with other art at

Your support would be appreciated.

The more sales  I make and bills I can pay for my art the more time to typing editing and uploading educational  resources here on metousia.

Friday, 29 March 2013

Phos Hilaron

Easter 2013

I'm just like to recommend sicne I havn't finished translationing the poetry I was going to share with you here's a Wikipedia link

Enter Phos_Hilaron in Wikipedia and you will open a page giving you the Greek Latin and English of this famous hymn along with the history.

highly recommended!

Sunday, 24 March 2013

Steven Mithen THIRST


Water and Power

in the Ancient World

Steven Mithen 2012

While this book deals with cultures other than Greece and Rome it has excellent chapters on water management systems created by the Mycenaeans, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantine cultures.

Ever wondered what happened to Lake Copais or about roman aquadects ?

Read this book!

Wednesday, 20 March 2013

More about AN


ἄν is best described as the Conditional Marker in Greek.

It is usually but not always translated as would or should.

Here are some prose samples

From Plato's Apology the iterative

Διηρώτων ἄν αὐτοὺς τί λέγοιεν I often asked them what they meant.

Ἄν From Demosthenes 3.27

ἄλλα σιωπῶ, πόλλ̕ ἂν ἔχων εἰπεῖν but I am silent though/ I would have / having much to say

ἄν with Subjunctive ὅπου ἂν ὦ Wherever I may be .

Ἄν in a Compounds becomes Whenever ἐάν ἐπειδάν ὅταν

ἐάν κελεύῃ πειθόμεθα when if ever he orders we obey

ἐάν ἔλθη νικήσομεν whenever he comes we (will) win

A set showing εἰ and ἄν in IF A THEN B statements

εἰ ταῦτα ἐγίγνετο ἀπέθνῃσκεν ἄν if this was happening he would be dying

εἰ ταῦτα ἐγένετο ἀπέθανεν ἄν if this had happened he would have died

εἰ ταῦτα ἐγένοιτο ἀποθάνοι ἄν if this should happen he would die

Indirect ἔφη εἰ ταῦτα ἐγένετο ἀποθανεῖν ἄν

Monday, 18 March 2013

An the Condiitonal Marker


ἄν is best described as the Conditional Marker in Greek.

It is usually but not always translated as would or should.

in epic poetry instead of Ἄν κε and κεν are sued.

Ἄν is used NOT only with the Subjunctive or Optative but also with the Indicative in statements If A THEN B see the sampler in the next post.

Iterative Ἄν intermittent action From Plato's Apology

Διηρώτων ἄν αὐτοὺς τί λέγοιεν I often asked them what they meant.

Ἄν in Compounds becomes Whenever ἐάν ἐπειδάν ὅταν

ἐάν κελεύῃ πειθόμεθα whenever he gives an order we obey

Saturday, 16 March 2013

More on The Subjunctive

The Function and use of the Subjunctive.

Look for an η or ω where there would normally be a ο or ου or ε or ει

ὦ ᾖς ᾖ ὦμεν ᾖτε ὦσι

ONE Exhortations requests appeals with First Person Present Aorist.

Μηδ̓ ἀποκρίνωμαι οὖν Xenophon and am I not therefore to respond

TWO Negative Commands or Prohibitions

Second or Third person Aorist Only Use negative μή μὴ ἐκδῶτέ με

THREE In a final clause after ὅπως ὡς ἵνα that in order that so that

FOUR Conditional Whenever statements with ἐάν or ἐπειδαν

ἐπειδαν διαπράξωμαι ἃ δέομαι ἥξω When(ever) I (shall) have accomplished what I needed to I will come (back).

SIX After Verbs expressing fear with μή Δεδιὼς μή λαβών με δίκην ἐπιθᾖ

Or this rare example of a Perfect subjunctive from Demosthenes 19.3

Δέδοικα μή τινα λήθην ὑμῖν πεποιήκῃ I fear that some forgetfulness by you may have caused …

I probably left out a couple

Go to Goodwin's Greek Grammar which has about 30 plus pages but I suggest you do this after finiding and reading more prose samples so you will not overwhelmed by that amount of detail?

Thursday, 14 March 2013

Introducing the Subjunctive.

This the Subjunctive of the Verb εἰμί and applies to most verbs except Contracts
Look for an η or ω where there would normally be a ο or ου or ε or ει

ὦ ᾖς ᾖ ὦμεν ᾖτε ὦσι

ei + e becomes eei o + o becomes oomen

The subjunctive is used to express an unfixed probable indefinite action but alsot to express encourage what some books call hortatory ad requests and proposals.

Monday, 11 March 2013

The Hills of Athens

When you're building city walls in a pre artillery culture and don't have to worry about cannon fire from heights having mountains and hills around your city can be useful .

Athens had the advantage of a range of hills to the west that could be used as wall foundations, the Pynx, the Museion, the Areopagus, Kolonos, with the Acroplis rising in the midst of the city and the low rise of Ardettos which may have had a spring of water.

Lycabettos was outsid eof the city walls in ancient times.

Further to the south west Piraeus once a island was built around two hills then linked to the city by the Long Walls.

If you read the previous post you know Attica as a whole was protected by mountains.

Once again think about how geography and history are linked.

Think about environment as well as artifacts.

Friday, 8 March 2013

The Mountains of Attica

Have a look at this map of Attica.

Geography does effect history. This map doesnt show all of the small foothills within Athens city walls. If all the foothills were included the city would look like it was surrounded by a shape more like a triangle than a rectangle.

There's only two major passes from Boeotia and the road to Corinth is coastal so any invasion force arriving by land would be quite visible. The Athenians wisely built a series of hill forts and watch towers.

Consider also that you need flat land for cereal crops.

The Athenians had an abundance of hills and sloping sites. No wonder they turned to olive cultivation and imported grain and had military forces dominated by hoplite infantry and the navy.

Been to modern Greece. Some coastal plains under cultivation NOW were swamps lakes or wetlands in the past or had irregular rainfall.

Geography and history are linked.

Next the Hills of Athens.

Monday, 4 March 2013

Imperfect Tense 6

Imperfect Six
3 prose examples

Plato Phaedo 58a καὶ ἐθαυμάζομεν γε

Thucydides uses Imperfect where others might use Aorist

οἱ Κερκυραῖοι ἔπεμπον τὴν ὠφελίαν ἄσμενοι

 The Corcyreans sent the assistance gladly.

Xenophon Anabasis 1.3.2.

καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἐδάκρυε πολὺν χρόνον ἑστώς.
 Οἱ δὲ ὁρῶντες ἐθάυμαζον καὶ ἐσιώπων.

And at first he wept for a long time while standing and the others watching were amazed and silent.

Friday, 1 March 2013

Imperfect Tense 5

Imperfect Tense Five

The – μι verbs follow a pattern of Vowel + ν, V + ς, V, V + μεν, V + τε, V + σαν

ἵστημι ἵστην ἵστης ἵστη ἵσταμεν ἵστατε ἵστασαν

τίθημι ἐτίθην ἐτίθεις ἐτίθει ἐτίθεμεν ἐτίθετε ἐτίθεσαν

δίδωμι ἐδίδουν ἐδίδους ἐδίδου ἐδίδομεν ἐδίδοτε ἐδίδοσαν