Sunday, 3 January 2016

GREEK ABC Part One

I like to start each New year by reviewing the Basics and whether you're learning #ModernGreek #NewTestament or #ClassicalGreek you have to start with the #alphabet!


THE SOUNDS OF GREEK
How Greek Was and Is Pronounced

Part One Covers the letters from Alpha to Zeta

As the Greek ABC has 24 letters and some of my readers may be viewing it via a mobile I will be posting this article as a series of 4 blogs over one week. Some long sentences have been split for people with smaller older mobile screens

A Note to Classical scholars planning to visit Greece. Learn the Demotic pronunciation!
Modern Greeks may study some Homer and Classical writers in Secondary School or University but using katherousa even accidentally may be offensive or more importantly just not understood!

I have tried to explain this in a way that will make sense to people who have not studied linguistics in College or University. If you do want a more formal explanation check out the excellent Wikipedia sites on Greek Phonology and language.


A α Alpha The vowel in Archon or cAlm or cUp or Italian Amare.

B β Beta The B in Biology or Bed.
However in Modern Greek this is a V as in Voice!
English V in OVER would be written as οβερ.
Classical Greek wrote W and V sounds as OU
so when citing Latin or other non Greek names like Valerius start with ου.

The b sound in Modern Greek is written as μπ
but note that this is “mb” in the middle of a word.

The Greek Diphthongs αυ ευ are pronounced av and ev or af and ef depending on the following consonant.So Αυγά is avga in Demotic and αυτός is aftos.

Γ γ Gamma The G in Graph or Gang or Got. It's a HARD G in Classical Greek!
Modern Greek has a j / y or a sound like the G in German sagen or jager or the g in Spanish fuego or English Yield or Gem or suGar.
The G sound in English Get is written as γκ.
A double gamma is used to represent the “ng” sound in Angle and Angel in Classical Greek hence New Testament and Classical aggelos.
It's Angelus in Latin and Angel in English.
Gamma before κ χ and γ is nk or ng.

Δ δ Delta D in Democracy or Deed or Dot
Modern Greek Delta has become “dh” the soft sound in
English This or breadTH or faTHer.
D as a sound is now written as ντ which also represents “nd” in the middle of a Greek word.
Dachshunds are Dogs becomes something like νταχσουντ αρ ντογξ!

Ε ε Epsilon E in Epigram or the vowel in pEt or French é

Ζ ζ Zeta was a zd or sometimes dz sound as in Zeus
or English aDZe, glaZeD or wiSDom
Modern Greek Zeta is Z as in English laZy!
Τζ in Modern Greek is a ts dz type sound.

Other letters used to represent double consonants also known as digraphs are
Ξ ξ and Ψ ψ. This is a sensible innovation as Greek verbs add s to their stems in the Future and Aorist.

Digraphs have been described in a previous post.

Watch for Part Two later this week!

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